EB-5 and Section 10(b) Fraud

Our colleague Rebecca Zeidel just published a terrific blog posting on the U.S. Supreme Court’s recent decision in Kokesh v. SEC, in which the Court imposed a five-year statute of limitations on agency-sought disgorgement in SEC enforcement actions. This decision resolved a Circuit split and definitively categorized disgorgement as a statutory “penalty” under 28 U.S.C. § 2462. That statute applies a five-year limitations period to any “action, suit or proceeding for the enforcement of any civil fine, penalty, or forfeiture, pecuniary or otherwise.”

This development is relevant in the EB-5 litigation context, where we see the SEC impose disgorgement in administrative proceedings as one penalty, among others, against issuers or other parties who have engaged in securities fraud or other violations of the securities laws in EB-5 transactions. Continue Reading U.S. Supreme Court Blocks SEC from Imposing Disgorgement beyond Five-Year Statute of Limitations

Check out what’s new in the EB-5 world, where a team of securities lawyers are at work offering to help lawmakers understand complex legal provisions of proposed EB-5 integrity legislation. The group is called the EB-5 Securities Roundtable (the “Roundtable”) and is made up of securities attorneys (the author of this blog posting included) who represent a broad range of stakeholders in EB-5 deals such as regional centers, recipients of EB-5 funds and lenders.

Anticipating more action from lawmakers on the EB-5 integrity front, the Roundtable has proposed technical language solutions to securities law provisions that may come into any final version of an EB-5 integrity bill. The group is aiming not to lobby but to serve as a resource to help lawmakers line EB-5 reform efforts up with existing securities laws, regulations and policies. Securities law is a very complicated area with its own universe of terminology. We think the Roundtable’s resource will be welcome by lawmakers, industry groups and others who have a stake in EB-5 reform. 

One of the goals of the Roundtable, which Mintz Levin co-founded with several firms across the country, is to regularize EB-5 securities law practice. This is an important goal. EB-5 needs to be a more normative form of financing in the toolkit of lawyers. This starts with the securities lawyers in the field — gatekeepers of EB-5 in every sense of the word — giving sound advice to clients and promoting best practices.

Right now the EB-5 Program is still on the margins of the securities industry despite the fact that EB-5 financing benefits emerging businesses seeking capital across sectors, particularly in industries where construction and hard development costs are high. The Roundtable can have an impact as the EB-5 Program develops and becomes more institutionalized.

What is the future of EB-5?

We hope the EB-5 Program becomes established, permanent and normative. But Congress needs to act soon. We are about a month away from the Program lapsing.

Lawmakers are right on to insist on integrity reforms with any extension of the Program. The EB-5 Program has been plagued by bad actors, fraud and loose practices since it became more popularized in 2008. But lawmakers don’t need to reinvent a whole new legal structure to fix this.

Added integrity provisions are a sensible move by Congress. This is in step with current law. But changes to the law should be aligned with our existing securities laws, which are effective. Specifically, the United States has a very strong anti-fraud legal infrastructure in place when it comes to the purchase and sale of securities, including Section 10(b) of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, and Rule 10b-5, codified at 17 C.F.R. 240.10b-5, which is one of the most important rules targeting securities fraud promulgated by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. These laws work. Congress does not need to re-write our securities laws in an effort to make EB-5 more sound and secure. The core integrity provisions for EB-5 are for the most part already in place. The technical guidance from the Roundtable can help lawmakers ensure that integrity provisions do not inadvertently create confusion, or conflict with existing obligations of issuers of EB-5 securities.

The Securities Law Roundtable has offered lawmakers a technical resource in the EB-5 reform process

Hopefully lawmakers will consider comments of the Roundtable when finalizing a draft of any legislation.

We’d like to continue to have EB-5 financing as an option in our toolkit to help clients. Many of our firm’s clients have been the recipients of EB-5 financing for projects ranging from the creation of a small media business to large-scale hotels, resorts and mixed-use real estate development. Congress making strategic moves to bring an increased level of integrity to the Program will benefit all. The Roundtable’s contribution to this broader effort is an important step forward, and will ensure that securities provisions in any new law are informed and workable. 

EB-5 regional centers and issuers take heed. The Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) is pursuing litigation against parties in several EB-5 deals. We expect the SEC to increase efforts to prosecute regional centers, issuers and broker dealers who don’t play by the rules in the EB-5 investment industry. Mintz Levin’s EB-5 Financing Practice just released an alert on limiting securities litigation risks in EB-5 transactions. This is go-to reading for anyone in the EB-5 industry. Here are the highlights of the article, along with a few of our thoughts about concerns that borrowers need to have before accepting direct proceeds in loans from EB-5 regional centers. Continue Reading Securities Law Risk Mitigation in EB-5 Offerings

What do a $175,000 Sea Ray yacht, a brand new $100,000 Mercedes Benz S-550 and a $55,000 BMW X5 SUV all have in common? According to the SEC, they were all items purchased by one Lin Zhong (a/k/a Lily Zhong) with money she fraudulently obtained from investors who were told that their funds were being invested in EB-5 real estate development and construction projects. Zhong also purchased with investor funds homes for herself in Poinciana Florida and Worcester, Massachusetts – all while telling investors that 100% of their funds would be used in construction projects and that all investments would be held in escrow until their EB-5 immigration petitions were approved. Continue Reading Life is Larger than Fiction in EB-5 Litigation: SEC Moves For Asset Freeze, Accounting, and Receiver Appointment in Civil Fraud Action in Florida

Private placement offerings are an increasingly active part of the securities business. One especially complicated and emerging area of private placements is the EB-5 Investor Visa Regional Center Program. Under the current rules of the program, an investor interested in a U.S. green card may place $500,000 or $1 million into an at-risk investment, issued by or affiliated with a United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) designated regional center. Under current law, the per investor minimum for participation in the EB-5 Program is $500,000 for an investment in a new commercial enterprise capitalizing or facilitating a project based in a rural area or in a specific geographic location of high unemployment known as a “Targeted Employment Area” (TEA). This is a downward adjustment from the $1 million that is required in any area outside a TEA. See Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), Section 203(b)(5)(B).  If job creation requirements are met as anticipated in the investment deal, an investor will be eventually eligible to secure lawful permanent residence in the U.S. Continue Reading EB-5 Due Diligence Matters: Industry at Point of Inflection Regarding Securities Compliance

EB-5 deals present risk for regional centers, issuers and investors.

With the uptick in EB-5 litigation, risk mitigation could not be more important for all stakeholders in an EB-5 transaction.

Hear from Adam Sisitsky, a member of Mintz Levin’s Securities Litigation Practice, on the three D’s of EB-5 risk mitigation: Continue Reading The Three D’s of EB-5 Risk Mitigation [VIDEO]

On August 25, 2015, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filed a civil fraud suit against Lobsang Dargey, a Bellevue, Washington-based real estate developer and alleged fraudster, who also happens to be a brother-in-law of tennis star Andre Agassi. Dargey had ventured into the EB-5 Program as a developer and regional center owner, securing designation by United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) for two regional centers, Path America SnoCo and Path America KingCo. The complaint is relevant to both investors and regional centers in the EB-5 industry, as well as to lawyers advising issuers in EB-5 offerings. Continue Reading Failure to Investigate Could Mean “Game-Set-and-Match” for EB-5 Investors: SEC Case against Brother-in-Law of Tennis Star Andre Agassi Shows Risk for Would-be Immigrant Investors